Reverse Logistics

The reverse logistics metamodel's design started with the literature review. The literature review sources can be found on the last section in this page. Based on the studied frameworks, models, and definitions, we identified the elements commonly regarded as necessary for model RL scenarios, in conjunction with their crucial attributes and relationships. We discarded most elements not pertaining to the RL domain, such as forward logistics elements, although a minimal subset was necessary in the final version of the metamodel. We selected elements of a relatively high level of abstraction to make the metamodel more expressive and thus more likely to be useful to represent varied scenarios.

Metamodel Elements

Element Graphical notation
Element Graphical notation
Processing center
Sales channel
Product inventory
Material inventory
Part inventory
Element Graphical notation
Activity group
Package disposal
Element Graphical notation
Decision rule
Element Graphical notation
Raw material
Product parts


Element Graphical notation
Recycle result
Recycle waste
Recover result
Recover waste
Natural environment

Metamodel Validation

Element Similar Concepts Source
Actor - [14]
Manufacturer - [4], [5], [6], [8], [9], [14]
Recycler - -
Recoverer - -
Distributor - [7]
Customer clients, end user, purchaser [2], [4], [5]
Element Similar Concepts Source
Facility site -
Landfill sanitary landfill, dump [1], [4], [6], [7], [8], [9]
Factory factory with/without recovery capacity [5]
Saleschannel channel [1], [9]
Warehouse depot, storage, [5], [7], [9]
Processing center distribution center with/without recovery capacity, recycling plant/ center, third party recovery center, collection center, remanufacturing plant, centralized return center, reclamation centers [1], [2], [3], [5], [8], [9]
Inventory excess inventory [2], [9]
Product inventory - -
Material inventory - -
Part inventory - -
Element Similar Concepts Source
Activity RL activity, process [9], [14]
Storing Storing (A), warehousing (A), inventory (A), inspection (H) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 13, 15, 16, 22, 26, 32, 36, 38, 92
Disposal Disposition (A), disposition cycle time (A), disposal (A), incineration (H), secure disposal (A), littering (H), land filling (A), destruction (H) 3, 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16, 21, 22, 26, 32, 36, 38, 41, 67, 92
Sell Sell (A), sell to secondaty market (H), sales (A), marketed (A), resell (A) 4, 5, 14, 21, 22, 26,32, 36, 38, 92, 53
Pollute leachate 32
Manufacture Production (A), manufacturing (A), product assembly (H), parts fabrication (H), modules subassembly (H), re-manufacture (H), reprocessing (H), re‐produce (H) 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 15, 16, 22, 26, 32, 38, 148, 67
Recycle Asset recovery (H), material recovery (H), cannibalization of parts (H), reuse (H), informal recycle (H), upcycled (H) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14, 21, 22, 29, 32, 36, 41, 67, 92
Recover Recover (A), asset recovery (A), reutilization (H), refurbish (A), product recovery (A), repair (A), reconditioning (A), disassembly (H), product upgrade (A), renovation (A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 21, 22, 26, 32, 36, 38, 41, 67, 92, 53
Transportation Reverse distribution (H), reverse transportation (H), distribution (A), delivering goods (A), redistributed (A) 2, 3, 6, 8, 11, 15, 16, 24, 32, 38, 92
Collection Retrieval (A), collecting used products (A), gate keeping (H) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, 15, 22, 23, 24, 32, 67
Purchase Sale (A), consumption (H), purchase (A), use (H), product acquisition (H) 14, 28, 32
Return Return (A), return to supplier (H), marketing retun (H), commercial return (H), end of use return (H), end of life reurn (H), non-defective return (H), customer return (H), warranty return (H), service return (H), good/product return (H) 1, 3, 4, 6, 14, 22, 26, 29, 32, 36, 148, 67
Activity group - -
Element Similar Concepts Source
Regulator government regulator -
Decision rule - -
Policy environmental legistlations, rules, regulations, controls, legislations [9], [14]
Control control of RL, control of life cycle [9]
Element Similar Concepts Source
Product good [3], [9]
Packaging primary packaging, secondary packaging, transport packaging [1]
Raw material material [1], [3], [9]
Product parts core, component of products, components [5], [6], [8], [9], [14]
waste hazardous waste, waste material [6], [7], [9]
Pollutant -


Element Similar Concepts Source
Conversion - -
Natural environment - -
Recycle result - -
Recycle waste - -
Recover result - -
Recover waste - -

Model Case Study

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